Daily Archives: May 8, 2022

Europe in desperate search of alternatives to replace Russian energy | DW News

May 3 2022

Russia provides roughly a quarter of the natural gas consumed in the European Union, more in some countries like Germany. The vast bulk of those exports to the EU, some 80-percent, flows through a network of pipelines on Ukrainian soil. The government in Kiew earns transit-fees from Russia and is still, in fact, despite the war. The toll of the conflict vastly outweighs those revenues, however and that’s why Ukraine has been impatient for the EU to end gas-imports from Russia. Europe is already desperately searching for natural-gas to replace Russian imports. On paper at least, the continent’s largest gas-field beneath the Dutch city of Groningen would seem to be an option. But years of drilling there have had a devastating side-effect: Earthquakes, triggered by changes in pressure.

Rebels Against the Raj: Western Fighters for India’s Freedom: Ramachandra Guha

An extraordinary history of resistance and the fight for Indian independence—the little-known story of seven foreigners to India who joined the movement fighting for freedom from British colonial rule.

Rebels Against the Raj tells the story of seven people who chose to struggle for a country other than their own: foreigners to India who across the late 19th to late 20th century arrived to join the freedom movement fighting for independence from British colonial rule.

Of the seven, four were British, two American, and one Irish. Four men, three women. Before and after being jailed or deported they did remarkable and pioneering work in a variety of fields: journalism, social reform, education, the emancipation of women, environmentalism.

This book tells their stories, each renegade motivated by idealism and genuine sacrifice; each connected to Gandhi, though some as acolytes where others found endless infuriation in his views; each understanding they would likely face prison sentences for their resistance, and likely live and die in India; each one leaving a profound impact on the region in which they worked, their legacies continuing through the institutions they founded and the generations and individuals they inspired.

Through these entwined lives, wonderfully told by one of the world’s finest historians, we reach deep insights into relations between India and the West, and India’s story as a country searching for its identity and liberty beyond British colonial rule.


“Insightful… Captivating… Guha’s previous works have distinguished him as an exceptional chronicler of India’s modern history. His latest volume provides fresh perspectives on the independence struggle that will appeal to those seeking more obscure eyewitness accounts. And since the book’s main figures were born outside of India, Rebels Against the Raj may strike a chord with contemporary outsiders who themselves have been seduced by India’s history and culture.”
—Samir Puri, New York Times

“Mr Guha’s new book [is] a reminder of how many outsiders held (and hold) deep affection for India and its democratic cause… The stories of his seven subjects—four men and three women—are deftly interwined… Mr Guha does not overstate the role of these foreigners… His account does not change the broad narrative of how Indians won freedom for themselves. Its real point is as much about the future as the past—an argument for the tolerant, outward-looking country India could once again become.”
—The Economist

“Fascinating and provocative reading… Guha organizes his material expertly and presents it clearly and stylishly, illuminating an aspect of Raj history which is often forgotten or neglected but which is nonetheless crucial… This superb book… add[s] a new dimension to the histories both of subject India and of imperial Britain – and [is] a thoroughly good read.”
—Bernard Porter, The Literary Review

“In an age of bigotry and narrow nationalisms, Ramachandra Guha’s new book is a welcome reminder that people’s opinions, passions and life’s work do not have to be dictated by their ethnic identities or their countries of birth.”
—Victor Mallet, Financial Times

“Guha has done well to remind us of these forgotten stories, all the more as India, like much of the world, is becoming more xenophobic and intolerant, believing all the virtues lie within national frontiers.”
—Mihir Bose, Irish Times

“Told through the lives of seven emigrants from the West who devoted themselves to India, the book offers a novel perspective of India’s fight for independence, from early in British rule through holding post-independence rulers to account…. For those looking for a new perspective on India’s fight for independence and beyond, and what drives people to devote their life and freedom to a cause not their own.”
—Library Journal

“Compelling minibiographies of a group of fighters for Indian independence who were born outside India but were fiercely devoted to the cause… An inspiring education tool for those researching India and nonviolent independence movements.”

“Guha’s elegantly written group portrait ably conveys the passion and idealism of the Gandhian independence movement and its hold over the Western imagination.”
—Publishers Weekly

About the Author


GUHA has taught at Yale and Stanford universities, the University of Oslo, the Indian Institute of Science, and the London School of Economics. His books include Gandhi: The Years That Changed the World, 1914-1948, Gandhi Before India (a 2014 New York Times Notable Book and a San Francisco Chronicle Best Book of the Year), and the award-winning India After Gandhi. He has written on social and political issues for The New York Times, and for the British and Indian press, including columns in the Daily Telegraph and the Hindustan Times. He lives in Bangalore, India.

  • Publisher‏ : ‎ Knopf (February 22, 2022)
  • Language‏ : ‎ English
  • Hardcover‏ : ‎ 496 pages
  • ISBN-10‏ : ‎ 110187483X
  • ISBN-13‏ : ‎ 978-1101874837
  • Item Weight ‏ : ‎ 1.75 pounds
  • Dimensions‏ : ‎ 6.62 x 1.25 x 9.53 inches

Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South: Michael A. Gomez

The transatlantic slave trade brought individuals from diverse African regions and cultures to a common destiny in the American South. In this comprehensive study, Michael Gomez establishes tangible links between the African American community and its African origins and traces the process by which African populations exchanged their distinct ethnic identities for one
defined primarily by the conception of race. He examines transformations in the politics, social structures, and religions of slave populations through 1830, by which time the contours of a new African American identity had begun to emerge.

After discussing specific ethnic groups in Africa, Gomez follows their movement to North America, where they tended to be amassed in recognizable concentrations within individual colonies (and, later, states). For this reason, he argues, it is possible to identify particular ethnic cultural influences and ensuing social formations that heretofore have been considered unrecoverable. Using sources pertaining to the African continent
as well as runaway slave advertisements, ex-slave narratives, and folklore, Gomez reveals concrete and specific links between particular African populations and their North American progeny, thereby shedding new light on subsequent African American social formation.

Amazon.com Review

With its legacy of brutality and of the horrific overseas passage, the transatlantic slave trade may be imagined as the kidnapping of Africans without regard to nationality or ethnicity. Based on his research, however, Michael A. Gomez suggests that Africans, upon arriving in America, were dispersed much more closely along ethnic and cultural lines than previously acknowledged. The underlying theme of his provocative work, Exchanging Our Country Marks, is that while blacks eventually replaced their African ethnic identities with new racial ones after arriving in the American South, they retained much of their original cultures far longer than was originally suspected. Some of his most interesting evidence of this comes in the form of runaway-slave advertisements, which identified the slaves by their ethnic roots (“Dinah, an Ebo wench that speaks very good English”). By scrutinizing ex-slave narratives, stories, music, and even the location and nature of slave rebellions, Gomez pieces together a genealogy of blacks in the American South, attempting to examine their notions of identity. Of course, much is based on significant speculation, a fact that only underscores the difficulty of such scholarship. Gomez manages to present a wide range of information clearly as he expands on a wealth of recent research regarding the slave trade and the history of blacks in America, making Exchanging Our Country Marks a vast and creative exploration of African identity in the United States from 1526 to 1830.


[A] conceptual “tour de force”. No brief review can do justice to the nuances and complexities of Gomez’s argument.

“Southern Cultures”

Gomez gracefully and distinctively enlivens slaves understandings of themselves as Igbo, Muslims, parents, children, and–eventually– Africans and Americans.

“Journal of Southern History”

[A] conceptual “tour de force,” No brief review can do justice to the nuances and complexities of Gomez’s argument.

“Southern Cultures”

ÝA¨ conceptual “tour de force.” No brief review can do justice to the nuances and complexities of Gomez’s argument.

“Southern Cultures”

ÝA¨ rare and creative inquiry into the origins of African identity in the United States from 1526 to 1830.

“Gaither Reporter”

“Gomez gracefully and distinctively enlivens slavesU understandings of themselves as Igbo, Muslims, parents, children, and–eventually–UAfricansU and Americans.

“Journal of Southern History””

[A] conceptual “tour de force.” No brief review can do justice to the nuances and complexities of Gomez’s argument.

“Southern Cultures”

[A] rare and creative inquiry into the origins of African identity in the United States from 1526 to 1830.

“Gaither Reporter”

Deeply researched in both African and North American sources.

“nternational Journal of African Historical Studies”

Gomez has yoked his admirable grasp of recent advances in African historiography with a subtle and sensitive reading of slavery.

“American Historical Review”


A well-researched, carefully delineated study.–Choice

From the Inside Flap


the diverse ethnic roots of Africans brought into slavery in the American South by identifying concrete links between African populations and their North American progeny.

From the Back Cover


the diverse ethnic roots of Africans brought into slavery in the American South by identifying concrete links between African populations and their North American progeny.

About the Author

Michael A. Gomez is a professor of history at New York University.

  • Publisher‏ : ‎ The University of North Carolina Press; New edition (March 30, 1998)
  • Language‏ : ‎ English
  • Paperback‏ : ‎ 384 pages
  • ISBN-10‏ : ‎ 0807846945
  • ISBN-13‏ : ‎ 978-0807846940
  • Lexile measure ‏ : ‎ 1580L
  • Item Weight ‏ : ‎ 1.25 pounds
  • Dimensions‏ : ‎ 6.13 x 0.96 x 9.25 inches

Divest Harvard – Whose University? The Case for Reinvestment at Harvard

See related:

as well as the full interview:

and related:

Courses offered online from the Harvard Extension School throughout the divestment controversy included: