Daily Archives: February 21, 2021

Oxford in the Great War (Your Towns & Cities in the Great War) Malcolm Graham

‘We woke to the call of bugles, and slept to the sound of tired route-marchers coming home.’ As Rachael Poole recalled in December 1918, Oxford was transformed during the Great War. Soldiers and cadets occupied most men’s colleges which were left virtually empty as undergraduates and some younger dons enlisted. Lecture rooms were used for military training, practice trenches were dug in green spaces, and trainee pilots flew from a temporary Port Meadow airfield. The threat of invasion sparked the formation of a Dad’s Army, the Oxford Volunteer battalion, and City streets and shop windows were blacked-out as a precaution against air raids.

University, college, and other public buildings became military hospitals, and thousands of war casualties were brought by train to be treated in Oxford. Belgian and Serbian refugees found a temporary home in a City which, through its University contacts, had a remarkably cosmopolitan outlook. Civilians, and especially women, were actively involved in fund-raising, welfare and relief work, providing social activities for wounded soldiers, and sending comforts to men at the front and prisoners of war. They also cultivated war allotments formed as food shortages led to the introduction of communal kitchens and, ultimately, to rationing.

Oxford dons, both male and female, took on crucial war work at home and abroad, and academic life in the University depended largely upon the women’s colleges. Local industries converted to war production, and women and girls found work in munitions factories, and in other businesses as more men joined the forces. Soldiers home on leave saw an Oxford undamaged by war, but few residents were free from anxiety, and college heads and the poorest citizens were afflicted equally by the loss of loved ones.

This book tells the fascinating, and largely forgotten, story of Oxford’s part in waging the Great War.

  • Publisher : Pen and Sword Military; Illustrated edition (February 19, 2015)
  • Language : English
  • Paperback : 176 pages
  • ISBN-10 : 1783462973
  • ISBN-13 : 978-1783462971
  • Item Weight : 13.4 ounces
  • Dimensions : 6 x 0.43 x 9 inches

See related:

Balliol and the Oxford Officer Training Program in World War I [Excerpt of presentation by Malcolm Graham from “Oxford and Empire: Oxford City and Empire.]

Excerpt by Malcolm Graham from “Oxford and Empire: Oxford City and Empire.”

See discussion series:

Oxford & Empire: Travel & Translation

Malcolm Graham read History at Nottingham University before obtaining an M.A. in English Local History in 1970 and a PhD from Leicester University in 1985; his thesis was on the development of Oxford’s Victorian suburbs. He has published extensively on Oxford and Oxfordshire and was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1999. He came to Oxford in 1970 as the city’s first full-time local-studies librarian and took on the same role for the county in 1974. Between 1991 and 2008, he was Head of Oxfordshire Studies with Oxfordshire County Council. His books include Images of Victorian Oxford (1992), Oxfordshire at War (1994), Diverse Oxfordshire (2010) and Oxford in the Great War (2014).

Before Columbus: Exploration and Colonization from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, 1229-1492 (The Middle Ages Series): Felipe Fernandez-Armesto

Demonstrating that Columbus’s voyage was a new step in a centuries-old process of European expansion, Fernandez-Armesto provides a stimulating account of the broadening of Europe’s physical and mental horizons in the Middle Ages. He shows how the techniques and institutions of medieval colonial expansion that were applied to the New World made long-term conquest and settlement possible.

A brief introduction analyzes the problems that face students and historians. Then, concentrating on medieval Spanish colonial development, but carefully linking that development to the wider European process of expansion, the author surveys the great areas of expansion in the Western Mediterranean: the island conquests of the House of Barcelona; the “first Atlantic Empire” in Andalusia, its environs, Valencia, and Murcia; the Genoese Mediterranean; and the North African coast.

In the last four chapters, Fernandez-Armesto sketches the course and characteristics of early European expansion of the Atlantic before Columbus and highlights the impact of geography and anthropology on the discovery of “the Atlantic space.” The emphasis throughout is on tracing the elements of continuity and discontinuity between Mediterranean and Atlantic worlds and studying how colonial societies originate and behave.

Demonstrating that Columbus’s voyage was a new step in a centuries-old process of European expansion, Fernandez-Armesto provides a stimulating account of the broadening of Europe’s physical and mental horizons in the Middle Ages. He shows how the techniques and institutions of medieval colonial expansion that were applied to the New World made long-term conquest and settlement possible.

A brief introduction analyzes the problems that face students and historians. Then, concentrating on medieval Spanish colonial development, but carefully linking that development to the wider European process of expansion, the author surveys the great areas of expansion in the Western Mediterranean: the island conquests of the House of Barcelona; the “first Atlantic Empire” in Andalusia, its environs, Valencia, and Murcia; the Genoese Mediterranean; and the North African coast.

In the last four chapters, Fernandez-Armesto sketches the course and characteristics of early European expansion of the Atlantic before Columbus and highlights the impact of geography and anthropology on the discovery of “the Atlantic space.” The emphasis throughout is on tracing the elements of continuity and discontinuity between Mediterranean and Atlantic worlds and studying how colonial societies originate and behave.

Review

“A welcome addition to the growing literature dedicated to ‘Atlantic Studies.’. . . Recommended for the professional scholar, the university student, and the educated public.”—History

“Fernandez-Armesto writes thoughtfully of medieval Spanish colonial development and other European expansion in the western Mediterranean. . . . A lively and sustained narrative.”—Choice

About the Author

Felipe Fernandez-Armesto is a fellow of St. Anthony’s College, Oxford, and has twice been a Visiting Senior Lecturer at Warwick University. His previous books include Columbus and The Canary Islands after the Conquest.’

  • Publisher : University of Pennsylvania Press; Reprint edition (June 1, 1987)
  • Language : English
  • Paperback : 294 pages
  • ISBN-10 : 0812214129
  • ISBN-13 : 978-0812214123
  • Item Weight : 13.6 ounces
  • Dimensions : 5.5 x 0.67 x 8.5 inches

The Portuguese in West Africa, 1415–1670: A Documentary History | Malyn Newitt

The Portuguese in West Africa, 1415–1670 brings together a collection of documents – all in new English translation – that illustrate aspects of the encounters between the Portuguese and the peoples of North and West Africa in the period from 1400 to 1650. This period witnessed the diaspora of the Sephardic Jews, the emigration of Portuguese to West Africa and the islands, and the beginnings of the black diaspora associated with the slave trade. The documents show how the Portuguese tried to understand the societies with which they came into contact and to reconcile their experience with the myths and legends inherited from classical and medieval learning. They also show how Africans reacted to the coming of Europeans, adapting Christian ideas to local beliefs and making use of exotic imports and European technologies. The documents also describe the evolution of the black Portuguese communities in Guinea and the islands, as well as the slave trade and the way that it was organized, understood, and justified.

Review

Newitt’s Portuguese in West Africa is clearly the best of the recent collections of documents in English about the Portuguese presence in the early modern world. Instructors seeking to include materials about Europe’s encounter with Africa before the eighteenth century will find coherent sets of readings here, as well as just enough context to frame effective discussions. And specialists in the history of Anglophone or Francophone Africa should also benefit from the readings on the Portuguese presence in Northwest and West Africa, along with useful bibliographic references.” – H-Net

“Given the great importance of the Portugese as sources for the early history of West Africa, it has been a shame that it is impossible to provide students with good translations of the best primary sources. Malyn Newett has now attempted to do this, in a well produced and translated selection of original sources on the Portuguese sources in West and West Central Africa….On the whole, this book is a useful teaching tool and likely to be useful for a long time to come.” – John K. Thornton, Boston University, International Journal of African Historical Studies

This book presents documents that illustrate aspects of the encounters between the Portuguese and the peoples of North and West Africa from 1400 to 1650.

The Portuguese in West Africa, 1415-1670 brings together a collection of documents – all in new English translation – that illustrate aspects of the encounters between the Portuguese and the peoples of North and West Africa in the period from 1400 to 1650.

Malyn Newitt is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Portuguese and Brazilian Studies at King’s College London. He is the author or editor of twelve books on Portuguese colonial history, including A History of Portuguese Overseas Expansion, as well as multiple journal articles.

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press; Illustrated edition (June 28, 2010)
  • Language : English
  • Paperback : 266 pages
  • ISBN-10 : 0521159148
  • ISBN-13 : 978-0521159142
  • Item Weight : 12.7 ounces
  • Dimensions : 6 x 0.66 x 9 inches

Njinga of Angola: Africa’s Warrior Queen: Linda M. Heywood

“The fascinating story of arguably the greatest queen in sub-Saharan African history, who surely deserves a place in the pantheon of revolutionary world leaders.”
―Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

Though largely unknown in the West, the seventeenth-century African queen Njinga was one of the most multifaceted rulers in history, a woman who rivaled Queen Elizabeth I in political cunning and military prowess. In this landmark book, based on nine years of research and drawing from missionary accounts, letters, and colonial records, Linda Heywood reveals how this legendary queen skillfully navigated―and ultimately transcended―the ruthless, male-dominated power struggles of her time.

“Queen Njinga of Angola has long been among the many heroes whom black diasporians have used to construct a pantheon and a usable past. Linda Heywood gives us a different Njinga―one brimming with all the qualities that made her the stuff of legend but also full of all the interests and inclinations that made her human. A thorough, serious, and long overdue study of a fascinating ruler, Njinga of Angola is an essential addition to the study of the black Atlantic world.”
―Ta-Nehisi Coates

“This fine biography attempts to reconcile her political acumen with the human sacrifices, infanticide, and slave trading by which she consolidated and projected power.”
New Yorker

“Queen Njinga was by far the most successful of African rulers in resisting Portuguese colonialism… Tactically pious and unhesitatingly murderous…a commanding figure in velvet slippers and elephant hair ripe for big-screen treatment; and surely, as our social media age puts it, one badass woman.”
―Karen Shook, Times Higher Education

Review

“Heywood has written a complete and focused account of Queen Njinga…Njinga of Angola seamlessly knits together the complete set of sources on the Queen, which include missionary accounts, letters, colonial records, previous histories of Angola and Dutch West India Company records…Heywood has cleared away the noise of [the] mostly fantastical accounts and assembled as straight a biography as is possible. Indeed, Njinga of Angola, which took nine years of research, sets out to replace interpretation and sensationalism with facts…Heywood preserves all of the complexity of Njinga and her politics in a book that provides the most complete and foundational history of Queen Njinga.”Delinda J. Collier, Times Literary Supplement

“Maintaining independence in the face of colonial encroachment, the seventeenth-century African queen Njinga fascinated Europeans…This fine biography attempts to reconcile her political acumen with the human sacrifices, infanticide, and slave trading by which she consolidated and projected power.”―New Yorker

“In her biography of this fascinating character, Linda Heywood seeks to blow away the smoke of infamy and adulation. She reveals a figure no less protean in life than her reputation has proved to be in the three and a half centuries since her death―an individual who overstepped boundaries of religion, gender and nationhood…Like its subject, Heywood’s book defies simple categorization, mixing anthropology, gender studies and history…This stimulating biography of a queen and resistance leader offers a timely reminder that gender fluidity is not something unique to the present age.”David Gelber, Literary Review

“Over her decades-long reign in the 17th century in central Africa, Queen Njinga was by far the most successful of African rulers in resisting Portuguese colonialism, argues Heywood. What’s more, as this detailed and engaging study with walk-on parts for Vatican plotters, Dutch traders and Brazilian slavers shows, she rivaled Elizabeth I and Catherine the Great for political nous and military prowess. Tactically pious and unhesitatingly murderous; a ‘subverter of gender norms,’ in the inevitable formulation; a national heroine in today’s Angola; a commanding figure in velvet slippers and elephant hair ripe for big-screen treatment; and surely, as our social media age puts it, one badass woman.”Karen Shook, Times Higher Education

“Queen Njinga of Angola has long been among the many heroes whom black diasporians have used to construct a pantheon and a usable past. Linda Heywood gives us a different Njinga―one brimming with all the qualities that made her the stuff of legend but also full of all the interests and inclinations that made her human. A thorough, serious, and long overdue study of a fascinating ruler, Njinga of Angola is an essential addition to the study of the black Atlantic world.”Ta-Nehisi Coates, author of Between the World and Me

“Njinga’s time has come. Heywood tells the fascinating story of arguably the greatest queen in sub-Saharan African history, who surely deserves a place in the pantheon of revolutionary world leaders, male and female alike.”Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

“Heywood gives us a biography well worthy of its complex subject: an insightful portrait of the person, smoothly narrated, with an eye for telling details, and solidly historical in its thoughtful probing of the currents in the African and Portuguese worlds Njinga skillfully navigated for more than four decades. This welcome book is a good read and a great story.”Joseph C. Miller, author of The Problem of Slavery as History

“Heywood offers a complex and layered narrative that significantly enhances our knowledge about Njinga, the memorable ruler who defied colonial power in seventeenth-century central Africa. In addition to being a tour de force of historical analysis that will mesmerize scholars, this powerful and moving book will delight Njinga’s many admirers, for the African queen occupies a vital place both in the national identity of Angola and in the memory of people of African descent in the Americas.”Roquinaldo Ferreira, author of Cross-Cultural Exchange in the Atlantic World

“[Njinga] was powerful, committed, and brilliant in her manipulation of the situations and people around her…A necessary introduction to this pivotal figure in African and world history.”Jacob Ivey, H-Net Reviews

“Historically, various authors have demonized Njinga or downplayed the importance of her reign. Heywood, however, does a beautiful job of clearly depicting her subject and setting the context for her decisions. More than simply providing facts, the author humanizes Njinga, turning her into a sympathetic figure. In the end, it is clear that she is to be appreciated in both African and world history…A great book for any history buff By taking up the mantle to write such a biography, Heywood ensures that Njinga will not be forgotten.”Sonnet Ireland, Library Journal

About the Author

Linda M. Heywood is Professor of History and African American Studies at Boston University.

  • Publisher : Harvard University Press; Reprint edition (February 25, 2019)
  • Language : English
  • Paperback : 320 pages
  • ISBN-10 : 0674237447
  • ISBN-13 : 978-0674237445
  • Item Weight : 12.8 ounces
  • Dimensions : 6 x 0.9 x 9.1 inches

What is the International Monetary Fund? Michael Manley (former P.M. of Jamaica) briefly explains

Medz with Blessing– Sep 29, 2020

Excerpt taken from the documentary “Life and Debt”.

Free trade – clip from life and debt

tclim988 – May 2, 2012

A compilation of short clips from the documentary film Life and Debt. The clips focus on the effects of free trade policies in Jamaica. These clips are meant to illustrate basic points from a structural perspective.

Island Futures: Caribbean Survival in the Anthropocene

TORCH | The Oxford Research Centre in the Humanities

Streamed live on Feb 16, 2021

We are delighted to welcome Professor Mimi Sheller to the Caribbean Studies Network, where she will discuss, and answer the audience’s questions about her research, inspirations, and new book, Island Futures: Caribbean Survival in the Anthropocene.

Under a White Sky: The Nature of the Future: Elizabeth Kolbert

The Pulitzer Prize–winning author of The Sixth Extinction returns to humanity’s transformative impact on the environment, now asking: After doing so much damage, can we change nature, this time to save it?

“A superb and honest reflection of our extraordinary time.”—Nature

That man should have dominion “over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth” is a prophecy that has hardened into fact. So pervasive are human impacts on the planet that it’s said we live in a new geological epoch: the Anthropocene.

In Under a White Sky, Elizabeth Kolbert takes a hard look at the new world we are creating. Along the way, she meets biologists who are trying to preserve the world’s rarest fish, which lives in a single tiny pool in the middle of the Mojave; engineers who are turning carbon emissions to stone in Iceland; Australian researchers who are trying to develop a “super coral” that can survive on a hotter globe; and physicists who are contemplating shooting tiny diamonds into the stratosphere to cool the earth.

One way to look at human civilization, says Kolbert, is as a ten-thousand-year exercise in defying nature. In The Sixth Extinction, she explored the ways in which our capacity for destruction has reshaped the natural world. Now she examines how the very sorts of interventions that have imperiled our planet are increasingly seen as the only hope for its salvation. By turns inspiring, terrifying, and darkly comic, Under a White Sky is an utterly original examination of the challenges we face.

Review

“To be a well-informed citizen of Planet Earth, you need to read Elizabeth Kolbert. . . . It’s a tribute to Kolbert’s skills as a storyteller that she transforms the quest to deal with the climate crisis into a darkly comic tale of human hubris and imagination that could either end in flames or in a new vision of Paradise.”—Jeff Goodell, Rolling Stone

“What makes Under A White Sky so valuable and such a compelling read is Kolbert tells by showing. Without beating the reader over the head, she makes it clear how far we already are from a world of undisturbed, perfectly balanced nature—and how far we must still go to find a new balance for the planet’s future that still has us humans in it.”NPR

“From the Mojave to lava fields in Iceland, Kolbert takes readers on a globe-spanning journey to explore these projects while weighing their pros, cons, and ethical implications.”—Nation

“An eye-opening—and at times terrifying—examination of just how far scientists have already gone in their attempts to re-engineer the planet.”—Gizmodo

“Brilliantly executed and urgently necessary.”—Publishers Weekly, starred review

“A master elucidator, Kolbert is gratifyingly direct as she assesses our predicament between a rock and a hard place, creating a clarion and invaluable ‘book about people trying to solve problems created by people trying to solve problems.’”Booklist (starred review)

“Every paragraph of Kolbert’s books has a mountain of reading and reporting behind it . . . Urgent, absolutely necessary reading as a portrait of our devastated planet.”Kirkus Reviews (starred
review)

“A tale not of magic-bullet remedies where maybe this time things will be different when we intervene in nature, but rather of deploying a panoply of strategies big and small in hopes that there is still time to make a difference and atone for our past. A sobering and realistic look at humankind’s perhaps misplaced faith that technology can work with nature to produce a more livable planet.”Library Journal (starred review)

About the Author

Elizabeth Kolbert is the author of Field Notes from a Catastrophe: Man, Nature, and Climate Change and The Sixth Extinction, for which she won the Pulitzer Prize. For her work at The New Yorker, where she’s a staff writer, she has received two National Magazine Awards and the Blake-Dodd Prize from the American Academy of Arts and Letters. She lives in Williamstown, Massachusetts, with her husband and children.

  • Publisher : Crown (February 9, 2021)
  • Language : English
  • Hardcover : 256 pages
  • ISBN-10 : 0593136276
  • ISBN-13 : 978-0593136270
  • Item Weight : 14.1 ounces
  • Dimensions : 5.75 x 0.87 x 8.55 inches

See related:

Geoengineering Watch | Exposing the climate engineering cover-up

SRM

SAG-SRM

For further information on Harvard Project see:

and related news and information.

Further information on earlier military investigations of weather modification and climate geoengineering include discussions of the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP). This program was created in the early 1990’s as part of an ionospheric research program jointly funded by the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Navy, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). According to government officials, HAARP allows the military to modify and weaponize the weather, by triggering earthquakes, floods, and hurricanes.