Daily Archives: January 5, 2021

The Enemy at the Gate: Habsburgs, Ottomans, and the Battle for Europe: Andrew Wheatcroft

In 1683, an Ottoman army that stretched from horizon to horizon set out to seize the “Golden Apple,” as Turks referred to Vienna. The ensuing siege pitted battle-hardened Janissaries wielding seventeenth-century grenades against Habsburg armies, widely feared for their savagery. The walls of Vienna bristled with guns as the besieging Ottoman host launched bombs, fired cannons, and showered the populace with arrows during the battle for Christianity’s bulwark. Each side was sustained by the hatred of its age-old enemy, certain that victory would be won by the grace of God.

The Great Siege of Vienna is the centerpiece for historian Andrew Wheatcroft’s richly drawn portrait of the centuries-long rivalry between the Ottoman and Habsburg empires for control of the European continent. A gripping work by a master historian, The Enemy at the Gate offers a timely examination of an epic clash of civilizations.


“As Andrew Wheatcroft brilliantly shows in The Enemy at the Gate, the skirmishes and the pitched battles that raged for centuries between Habsburgs and Ottomans, and their numerous vassals on both sides, represented not so much a ‘clash of civilizations’ as a collision of empires…. [H]is narrative is thrilling as well as thoughtful, a rare combination.”―New York Times Book Review

“Wheatcroft offers a riveting account of the slow, methodical Ottoman approach to Vienna…. [A] masterful account of the siege and battle.”
Victor Davis Hanson, First Things

“There are two stories here worth telling and well told: the blood-and-thunder tale of the heroic defense of Vienna against the Ottomans in 1683, the surge in morale after the Habsburg victory, and the war to recover Hungary and the Balkans from the Turks. The other story is of the obsessive fear and hatred of the Turks in Christian central Europe, exorcised by the Habsburg victory at Vienna, turning to revenge and reconquest led first by Duke Charles of Lorraine, then by the legendary Prince Eugene of Savoy, ending in exhausted and bankrupt stability.”
Washington Times

“[A] riveting narrative, Andrew Wheatcroft’s The Enemy at the Gate…tells the story of the final Habsburg-Ottoman showdown at the gates of Vienna in 1683, one of the genuine turning points in European history.”―Telegraph

About the Author

Andrew Wheatcroft is the author of Infidels, The Habsburgs, and The Ottomans, and numerous other books. He lives in Scotland.

Product details

  • Publisher : Basic Books; Illustrated edition (November 9, 2010)
  • Language: : English
  • Paperback : 384 pages
  • ISBN-13 : 978-0465020812
  • Reading age : 13 years and up
  • Grade level : 11 and up
  • Item Weight : 1 pounds
  • Dimensions : 5.95 x 1.25 x 9.2 inches

New Negroes from Africa: Slave Trade Abolition and Free African Settlement in the Nineteenth-Century Caribbean (Blacks in the Diaspora): Rosanne Marion Adderley

In 1807 the British government outlawed the slave trade, and began to interdict slave ships en route to the Americas. Through decades of treaties with other slave trading nations and various British schemes for the use of non-slave labor, tens of thousands of Africans rescued from illegally operating slave ships were taken to British Caribbean colonies as free settlers. Some became paid laborers, others indentured servants. The encounter between English-speaking colonists and the new African immigrants are the focus of this study of the Bahamas and Trinidad―colonies which together received fifteen thousand of these “liberated Africans” taken from captured slave ships. Adderley describes the formation of new African immigrant communities in territories which had long depended on enslaved African labor. Working from diverse records, she tries to tease out information about the families of liberated Africans, the labor they performed, their religions, and the culture they brought with them. She addresses issues of gender, ethnicity, and identity, and concludes with a discussion of repatriation.


This interesting and well researched book makes a valuable contribution to our understanding of the multifaceted experiences of the “liberated Africans” who were brought in the nineteenth century to the Caribbean and, through them, to the cultural history of the African experience in the Americas. Vol. 47.1 (Jan. 2008)

From Africa to Brazil: Culture, Identity, and an Atlantic Slave Trade, 1 600–1830 (African Studies, Series Number 113): Walter Hawthorne

From Africa to Brazil traces the flows of enslaved Africans from identifiable points in the broad region of Africa called Upper Guinea to Amazonia, Brazil. These two regions, though separated by an ocean, were made one by a slave route. Walter Hawthorne considers why planters in Amazonia wanted African slaves, why and how those sent to Amazonia were enslaved, and what their Middle Passage experience was like. The book is also concerned with how Africans in diaspora shaped labor regimes, determined the nature of their family lives, and crafted religious beliefs that were similar to those they had known before enslavement. This study makes several broad contributions. It presents the only book-length examination of African slavery in Amazonia and identifies with precision the locations in Africa from where members of a large diaspora in the Americas hailed. From Africa to Brazil also proposes new directions for scholarship focused on how immigrant groups created new or recreated old cultures.

“Hawthorne’s richly textured discussion makes a valuable contribution to the existing historiography. This is a story that needs to be told.” – Linda Heywood, Boston University

“From Africa to Brazil achieves a trans-Atlantic perspective that will serve as a model for those scholars of slavery who are interested in the origins and destinations of enslaved Africans. In connecting the rice-producing regions of the upper Guinea coast with the development of rice cultivation in northeastern Brazil, Hawthorne’s majestic study demonstrates the transfer of African technology and culture to one specific region in the Americas in the eighteenth century.” – Paul Lovejoy, York University

“Building on his extensive knowledge of Upper Guinea, Hawthorne shows that the majority of slaves arriving into eighteenth-century Amazonia came from a very small area along the coast. As a result, Balanta, Bijago, Papel, and Mandinka were able to recreate a variety of ‘Upper Guinean’ core beliefs and practices in their new Brazilian homes. Hawthorne convincingly demonstrates the tenacity of Upper Guinean culture in Amazonia; yet his contributions extend well beyond a simple examination of Upper Guineans in the region. Indeed, From Africa to Brazil establishes Hawthorne as an expert on the early history of Maranhão and Pará, regions that are vastly understudied. Particularly impressive in this regard is his treatment of indigenous people and the transition from Indian to African labor. Overall, a deeply researched, important contribution to the study of African diaspora history.” – James Sweet, University of Wisconsin–Madison

Book Description

This book traces the flows of enslaved Africans from the broad region of Africa called Upper Guinea to Amazonia, Brazil.

About the Author

Walter Hawthorne is Associate Professor of African History at Michigan State University. He is the author of Planting Rice and Harvesting Slaves: Transformations along the Guinea-Bissau Coast, 1400–1900 (2003) and has published in scholarly journals such as the Journal of African History, the Luso-Brazilian Review, Slavery and Abolition, Africa, the Journal of Global History, and the American Historical Review. Before joining the History Department at Michigan State University, he was a visiting Assistant Professor at the University of Vermont and Assistant and Associate Professor at Ohio University.

Product details

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press; Illustrated edition (September 13, 2010)
  • Language: : English
  • ISBN-13 : 978-0521764094
  • Item Weight : 1.3 pounds
  • Dimensions : 6 x 0.81 x 9 inches

Fmr. White Nationalist Says Ideology Will Endure “Underground” Post-Trump | Amanpour and Company

Amanpour and Company, Dec 16, 2020

Derek Black was raised in a family dedicated to white supremacy. His father was founder of a notorious white nationalist website, and his godfather was the infamous David Duke. Black spread his own racist beliefs, and coined the term “white genocide,” as host of a popular radio program. But once in college, Black was confronted by his friends about his bigoted beliefs. They gradually worked a transformation, and Black eventually renounced his views. He discusses all this with Michel Martin.
Originally aired on December 16, 2020.

Moore: Trump’s Call ‘Merits Investigation’ By Fulton Co. District Attorney | The Last Word | MSNBC

MSNBC, Jan 5, 2021
Michael J. Moore tells Lawrence O’Donnell that Trump’s call where he “tries to strong arm” Georgia’s secretary of state to overturn the election is a “pretty clear effort at trying to influence a state official in the performance of their official duties, but also to commit election fraud” and exposes him to investigation for violating the state’s election laws. Richard Hasen also joins. Aired on 1/5/2021.

Heilemann: Trump Has Been Undone By Tape ‘In A Way That No Other Preside nt Has’ | Deadline | MSNBC

MSNBC, Jan 4, 2021

Executive editor of The Recount John Heilemann reacts to the recording of Trump’s phone call where he pressured Georgia’s secretary of state to overturn the state’s election results, and how it adds to a list of other damaging tapes of the president. Aired on 1/4/2021.

House Democrats Ask FBI Dir. Wray To Open Criminal Probe Into Trump Phone Call | Ayman Mohyeldin

MSNBC, Jan 4, 2021

Rep. Ted Lieu (D-CA) and Rep. Kathleen Rice (D-NY) are calling for FBI Director Christopher Wray to open a criminal probe into President Trump’s Saturday call to Georgia’s Secretary of State. Rep. Lieu explains why he’s asking Wray to act quickly. Aired on 01/04/2021.

Planting Rice and Harvesting Slaves: Transformations along the Guinea-Bissau Coast, 1400-1900 (Social History of Africa Series): Walter Hawthorne

Hawthorne reevaluates long-held notions about the Atlantic slave trade’s impact on a number of “stateless” – or decentralized – societies in Africa’s Guinea-Bissau region. He shows that decentralized societies were by no means passive victims of the slave trade, as commonly depicted in the literature, but vigorously defended themselves from the incursions of the raiders.


“This is one of the best studies we have on the way a single society coped with the challenges that the Atlantic slave trade posed for all West African societies. It forces us to rethink the way stateless people adapted to the threat that slaving posed and it challenges the idea that African societies can be neatly divided into the raiders and the raided.”-Martin A. Klein Professor Emeritus, Department of History University of Toronto

“Hawthorne has written a seminal contribution to the precolonial history of the Upper Guinea Coast. This book masterfully combines the author’s impressive knowledge of Balanta culture and oral sources, with meticulous study of early Portuguese written records. It will long serve as the definitive study of Balanta history. In addition, this book is a major contribution to the theoretical knowledge of how small scale decentralized societies on the Upper Guinea Coast responded to, and survived, the development of the Atlantic slave trade.”-Peter Mark Author of ‘Portuguese’ Style and Luso-African Identity; Precolonial Senegambia, 16th-19th Centuries

About the Author

Walter Hawthorne is Assistant Professor of History at Ohio University.

Product details

  • Publisher : Heinemann (October 30, 2003)
  • Language: : English
  • Paperback : 280 pages
  • ISBN-10 : 0325070490
  • ISBN-13 : 978-0325070490
  • Item Weight : 15.8 ounces
  • Dimensions : 6.1 x 0.58 x 9.1 inches

Daughters of the Trade: Atlantic Slavers and Interracial Marriage on the Gold Coast (The Early Modern Americas): Pernille Ipsen

Severine Brock’s first language was Ga, yet it was not surprising when, in 1842, she married Edward Carstensen. He was the last governor of Christiansborg, the fort that, in the eighteenth century, had been the center of Danish slave trading in West Africa. She was the descendant of Ga-speaking women who had married Danish merchants and traders. Their marriage would have been familiar to Gold Coast traders going back nearly 150 years. In Daughters of the Trade, Pernille Ipsen follows five generations of marriages between African women and Danish men, revealing how interracial marriage created a Euro-African hybrid culture specifically adapted to the Atlantic slave trade.

Although interracial marriage was prohibited in European colonies throughout the Atlantic world, in Gold Coast slave-trading towns it became a recognized and respected custom. Cassare, or “keeping house,” gave European men the support of African women and their kin, which was essential for their survival and success, while African families made alliances with European traders and secured the legitimacy of their offspring by making the unions official.

For many years, Euro-African families lived in close proximity to the violence of the slave trade. Sheltered by their Danish names and connections, they grew wealthy and influential. But their powerful position on the Gold Coast did not extend to the broader Atlantic world, where the link between blackness and slavery grew stronger, and where Euro-African descent did not guarantee privilege. By the time Severine Brock married Edward Carstensen, their world had changed. Daughters of the Trade uncovers the vital role interracial marriage played in the coastal slave trade, the production of racial difference, and the increasing stratification of the early modern Atlantic world.


“In this important and engaging study, Pernille Ipsen brings vividly to life the mixed-race communities that flourished around Danish forts on the West African coast. Her accessible work is full of surprises and adds a human dimension to the often abstract history of the slave trade, and the importance and originality of her research has implications far beyond West Africa. A first-rate achievement.”—Randy J. Sparks, author of Where the Negroes Are Masters: An African Port in the Era of the Slave Trade

“An important contribution that will appeal to a broad audience of scholars who have an interest in the history of entanglements, Africa, Europe, the Atlantic, gender, power relations, race and society.”—Itinerario

Daughters of the Trade represents the best of recent work that seeks to problematize the formal conjugal relationships between European men and African and Euro-African women that were such a prominent feature of the trading cities and forts of coastal West Africa during the era of the Atlantic slave trade. In elucidating the centrality of intimate relations in the trade and African colonialism, Ipsen’s graceful and intellectually lucid book will almost certainly become the benchmark monograph on the subject.”—Emily Clark, author of The Strange History of the American Quadro

“In this carefully researched and beautifully written study, Pernille Ipsen uses interracial marriages on the West African coast to illustrate the very local construction of race and racial consciousness in the Atlantic world. African women are at the heart of this story—as wives, as traders, as mothers, and as daughters. Women’s lives have too often fallen to the margins, and Daughters of the Trade forcefully argues that African women played crucial, if complicated, roles in the development of the Atlantic world.”—Jennifer Morgan, New York University

“A carefully researched and illuminating addition to scholarship on Danish colonial history, the study of the Atlantic slave trade and its impacts on African history, and scholarship on the making of the Atlantic world.”—American Historical Review

“Ipsen breaks welcome new ground. . . . This is an excellent, very readable study that is suitable for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, and courses on the history of gender, sexuality and racial dynamics in the Atlantic world.”—Slavery & Abolition

“Ipsen has opened a previously closed window. In the process, she has provided us with an analysis of interracial marriage in the Atlantic that bridges the early modern and modern, as well as the precolonial and colonial, with significant implications for interpretations of better known cases in the Dutch, French, and British Atlantic.”—African Studies Review

“Daughters of the Trade is an important contribution to a growing body of literature on interracial marriage and the mixed-race communities that emerged on the African coast in the era of the Atlantic slave trade. Scholars and students of the Atlantic world, slavery and abolition, and West African slave-trade ports will find a great deal to consider in this work, especially in terms of methodology and analytical approach.”—William & Mary Quarterly

About the Author

Pernille Ipsen is Associate Professor of Gender and Women’s Studies and History at University of Wisconsin, Madison

Product details

  • Publisher : University of Pennsylvania Press; Reprint edition (December 7, 2016)
  • Language: : English
  • Paperback : 288 pages
  • ISBN-10 : 0812223950
  • ISBN-13 : 978-0812223958
  • Item Weight : 15.2 ounces
  • Dimensions : 6 x 0.65 x 9 inches

Audio: Trump berates Ga. secretary of state, urges him to ‘find’ votes

Washington Post

Jan 3, 2021

In a one-hour phone call on Saturday with Georgia election officials, President Trump insisted he won the state and threatened vague legal consequences if the officials did not act. These are excerpts from the call.