Daily Archives: November 24, 2020

GOP Wants A Dictatorship of the Rich

Thom Hartmann Program

Nov 24, 2020

What do you call someone who wants a dictatorship of the rich? One caller wants to call them Corporate Communist, because communism is a dictatorship of the poor and working class but Thom Hartmann points out that there is already a word for the kind of dictatorship the Republicans want… fascism!

https://www.youtube.com/user/thomhart… Fascism, is a merger of corporate and state power, and nothing else could so easily describe the goals of the GOP, who use government to make money for the rich at the cost of the rest of us!

2020/11/24 Chang’e-5 mission for moon samples & beyond /safe COVID-19 vaccine within reach


Nov 24, 2020

Don’t Depend on Wall Street for Renewal Energy Investment


Nov 24, 2020

Public interest led innovation in renewable energy is urgently needed. The financial sector is deeply compromised and cannot be relied upon to invest in effective technologies that are manufactured, rolled out, and make a difference to our energy emissions.

New JFK documentary talks about ‘deep state’ secrets

RT America

Nov 24, 2020

Author and filmmaker Sean Stone joins Rick Sanchez to discuss a recent explosive documentary about the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy and what it says about the shadowy forces constituting the US “deep state.”

The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery: 1776-1848 (Verso World History Series): Robin Blackburn

In 1770 a handful of European nations ruled the Americas, drawing from them a stream of products, both everyday and exotic. Some two and a half million black slaves, imprisoned in plantation colonies, toiled to produce the sugar, coffee, cotton, ginger and indigo craved by Europeans. By 1848 the major systems of colonial slavery had been swept away either by independence movements, slave revolts, abolitionists or some combination of all three. How did this happen?

Robin Blackburn’s history captures the complexity of a revolutionary age in a compelling narrative. In some cases colonial rule fell while slavery flourished, as happened in the South of the United States and in Brazil; elsewhere slavery ended but colonial rule remained, as in the British West Indies and French Windwards. But in French St. Domingue, the future Haiti, and in Spanish South and Central America both colonialism and slavery were defeated. This story of slave liberation and American independence highlights the pivotal role of the “first emancipation” in the French Antilles in the 1790s, the parallel actions of slave resistance and metropolitan abolitionism, and the contradictory implications of slaveholder patriotism.

The dramatic events of this epoch are examined from an unexpected vantage point, showing how the torch of anti-slavery passed from the medieval communes to dissident Quakers, from African maroons to radical pirates, from Granville Sharp and Ottabah Cuguano to Toussaint L’Ouverture, from the black Jacobins to the Liberators of South America, and from the African Baptists in Jamaica to the Revolutionaries of 1848 in Europe and the Caribbean.


“A challenge to those who fondly suppose that slavery declined as ideas of Western ‘enlightenment’ spread … Blackburn deserves praise for undermining complacency about the past—and the present.”—Christopher Hitchens, New York Newsday

“Blackburn’s highly intelligent and well-written book is a substantial contribution. In this story the central event is the French Revolution.”—Victor Kiernen, London Review of Books

“An incisive synthesis of developments in North America, the Caribbean and Latin America. Blackburn’s book is bold and original.”—Richard Dunn, Times Literary Supplement

“One of the finest studies of slavery and abolition to appear in many years.”—Eric Foner, Dissident

“The first historian since Eric Williams to present a comprehensive interpretation. But Blackburn, profiting from and admirably synthesizing the vast scholarship produced since Capitalism and Slavery (1944), is far less rigid and doctrinaire, much more attuned to the workings of politics. Unlike Williams, he includes slavery throughout the Western hemisphere.”—David Brion Davis, New York Review of Books

About the Author

Robin Blackburn teaches at the New School in New York and the University of Essex in the UK. He is the author of many books, including The Making of New World Slavery, The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, Age Shock, Banking on Death, and The American Crucible.

  • Paperback : 560 pages
  • ISBN-10 : 1844674754
  • ISBN-13 : 978-1844674756
  • Publisher : Verso; New Edition (April 18, 2011)

Age of Revolutions – An Open-Access, Peer-Reviewed Academic Journal

The Allure of Revolution

We live in an age of revolutions. The concept of a revolution itself is ever-present, malleable, and promising. We are so constantly inundated with the idea, that one wonders how such a seemingly singular concept can continue to mean anything. Revolution is found in historical scholarship, popular advertising for nutritional supplements, on television, and on and on and on. Revolutionsare everywhere.

Why is this concept so popular? Revolutions accelerate time, hinting at an immediate resolution to a persistent problem. Tyranny and belly fat can be whisked away in a single revolutionary action. Take up arms or take a pill. Buy into a revolutionary ideology or simply buy a product. Revolutions play to our hopes — whatever they might be.

Historians use the term “revolution” to place emphasis on change, rather than continuity. The French Revolution set France, Europe, and the World on a new course. In his Philosophy of History, Hegel wrote that the French Revolution was “world-historical.”[1] Other revolutions were globally significant too. The Glorious Revolution overthrew one king for another. The American Revolution turned into the first successful colonial revolt and a few decades later the Haitian Revolution became the first successful slave revolt. In the political sense of the term, revolutionary moments change the political culture of a moment — mostly through violent, and on occasion through peaceful, means. All of these events are significant on a global level and all emphasize a swift break with a previous regime.

Economic and technological revolutions inevitably and irrevocably alter the economic landscape. The Industrial Revolution sits alongside the Information Revolution. We might also talk about the Print Revolution of Gutenberg in the same breath as the E-books, Blogs, and Social Media Revolutions. Will our grandchildren remember George Washington and Steve Jobs as two great American revolutionaries?

Yet, revolution and change are not direct synonyms, nor can they be. The original meaning of the word “revolution”was different from its usage today. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word referred to the circular or elliptical course of celestial bodies or of the complete revolution our planet makes in a single day. A recurring period of time. A cycle. A repetition. From the sixteenth century onwards into the era historians normally think of as the Age of Revolutions (1688-1848), the word gradually gained new meaning.[2]

…(read more).

See related:

Haitian Revolution – Age of Revolutions


Check out our Haitian Revolution Reading List – two lists of top texts to read on the Haitian Revolution compiled by Marlene Daut and John Garrigus.

Bergeaud, Émeric. Stella: A Novel of the Haitian Revolution. Translated by Lesley Curtis and Christen Mucher. New York University Press, 2015.

Blackburn, Robin. “Haiti, Slavery, and the Age of the Democratic Revolution.” The William and Mary Quarterly, 63, no. 4 (2006): 643-74.

—. The American Crucible: Slavery, Emancipation and Human Rights. Verso, 2013.

—. The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800. Verso, 2010.

—. The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery: 1776-1848. Verso, 2011.

Brown, Gordon S. Toussaint’s Clause: The Founding Fathers and the Haitian Revolution. University of Mississippi Press, 2005.

Buck-Morss, Susan. Hegel, Haiti, and Universal History. University of Pittsburgh Press, 2009.

Cauna, Jacques de. Haïti: L’Eternelle Révolution. PRNG, 2009.

Daut, Marlene. Tropics of Haiti: Race and the Literary History of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World, 1789-1865. Liverpool University Press, 2015.

—. “Un-Silencing the Past: Boisrond-Tonnerre, Vastey, and the Re-Writing of the Haitian Revolution.” South Atlantic Review 74, no. 1 (2009): 35-64.

Dillon, Elizabeth Maddock and Michael Dexler, ed. The Haitian Revolution and the Early United States: Histories, Textualities, Geographies. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016.

Dubois, Laurent. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution. Harvard University Press, 2004.

—. A Colony of Citizens: Revolution and Slave Emancipation in the French Caribbean, 1787-1804. University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

— “An Enslaved Enlightenment: Rethinking the Intellectual History of the French Atlantic.” Social History Vol. 31, No.1 (February 2006): 1-14.

—. “Dessalines Toro D’Haïti.” The William and Mary Quarterly 69, no. 3 (2012): 541-48.

Dubois, Laurent and John D. Garrigus. Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents. Bedford/St. Martins, 2006.

Dun, James Alexander. Dangerous Neighbors: Making the Haitian Revolution in Early America. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016.

Ferrer, Ada. Freedom’s Mirror: Cuba and Haiti in the Age of Revolution. Cambridge University Press, 2014.

—, “Haiti, Free Soil, and Antislavery in the Revolutionary Atlantic.” American Historical Review 117, no. 1 (2012): 40-66.

Fick, Carolyn. “The Haitian revolution and the limits of freedom: defining citizenship in the revolutionary.Social History, 32, no. 4 (2007): 394-414.

—. The Making Haiti: Saint Domingue Revolution From Below. University of Tennessee Press, 1990.

Fischer, Sibylle. Modernity Disavowed: Haiti and the Cultures of Slavery in the Age of Revolution. Duke University Press, 2004.

Forsdick, Charles and Christian Høgsbjerg, ed. The Black Jacobins Reader. Duke University Press, 2017.

Fouchard, Jean. The Haitian Maroons: Liberty or Death. Trans. A. Faulkner Watts. Edward W. Blyden Press, 1981.

Gaffield, Julia. “Complexities of Imagining Haiti: A Study of National Constitutions, 1801- 1807.” Journal of Social History. Vol. 41, No. 1 (2007): 81-103.

—. Haitian Connections in the Atlantic World: Recognition after Revolution. University of North Carolina Press, 2015.

—. The Haitian Declaration of Independence: Creation, Context, and Legacy. University of Virginia Press, 2016.

Garraway, Doris L. Tree of Liberty: Cultural Legacies of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World. University of Virginia Press, 2008.

Garrigus, John. Before Haiti: Race and Citizenship in French Saint-Domingue. Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

—. “Vincent Ogé Jeune (1757-91): Social Class and Free Colored Mobilization on the Eve of the Haitian Revolution.” The Americas 68, no.1 (2011): 33-62.

Geggus, David. Haitian Revolutionary Studies. Indiana University Press, 2002.

—, ed. The Impact of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World. University of South Carolina Press, 2001.

—. Slavery, War and Revolution: The British Occupation of Saint Dominque, 1793-1798. Clarendon Press, 1982.

Geggus, David and David Barry Gaspar. A Turbulent Time: The French Revolution and the Greater Caribbean. Indiana University Press, 2003.

Geggus, David Patrick and Norman Fiering. The World of the Haitian Revolution. Indiana University Press, 2009.

Girard, Philippe. “Black Talleyrand: Toussaint Louverture’s Diplomacy, 1798-1802.” William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. LXVI, No. 1 (2009): 87-124.

—. “Caribbean Genocide: Racial War in Haiti, 1802-1804,” Patterns of Prejudice Vol. 39, No. 2 (2005): 138-161

—. “Napoleon Bonaparte and the Emancipation Issue in Saint-Domingue, 1799-1803.” French Historical Studies 32, no. 4 (2009): 587-618

—. “Rebelles with a Cause: Women in the Haitian War of Independence, 1802-04.” Gender & History Vol. 21, No. 1 (April, 2009): 60-85.

—. The Slaves Who Defeated Napoleon: Toussaint Lovuerture and the Haitian War of Independence, 1801-1804. University of Alabama Press, 2011.

—. Toussaint Louverture: A Revolutionary Life. Basic Books, 2016.

Girard, Philippe R. and Jean-Louis Donnadieu. “Toussaint before Louverture: New Archival Findings on the Early Life of Toussaint Louverture.” The William and Mary Quarterly 70, no. 1 (2013): 41-78.

Ghachem, Malick W. The Old Regime and the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Glaunec, Jean-Pierre. L’Armée indigene: La défaite de Napoléon en Haïti. Lux Éditeur, 2014.

Jackson, Maurice and Jacqueline Bacon, eds. African Americans and the Haitian Revolution: Selected Essays and Historical Documents. Routledge, 2009.

James, CLR. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution. Vintage, 1989 (originally published in 1938).

Jenson, Deborah. Beyond the Slave Narrative: Politics, Sex, and Manuscripts in the Haitian Revolution. Liverpool University Press, 2011.

Johnson, Ronald Angelo. Diplomacy in Black and White: John Adams, Toussaint Louverture, and Their Atlantic World Alliance. The University of Georgia Press, 2014.

Kadish, Doris Y. “The Black Terror: Women’s Responses to Slave Revolts in Haiti.” The French Review 68, no. 4 (1995): 668-80.

King, Stewart R. Blue Coat or Powdered Wig: Free People of Color in Pre-Revolutionary Saint Domingue. University of Georgia Press, 2001.

LaCerte, Robert. “The Evolution of Land and Labour in the Haitian Revolution, 1791-1820.” In Caribbean Freedom: Economy and Society from Emancipation to the Present, edited by Hilary Beckles and Verene Sheperd, 42-47.Markus Wiener Publications, 1993.

Lentz, Thierry. “Bonaparte, Haïti, l’echec colonial du regime consulaire.” Outre-Mers: Revue d’histoire, Vol. 90, No. 2 (2003): 41-60.

Lundahl, Mats. “Toussaint l’ouverture and the war economy of saint‐domingue, 1796–1802.” Slavery and Abolition, 6, no. 2 (1985): 122-138.

Madureira, Luís. “The Shadow Cast by the Enlightenment: The Haitian Revolution and the Naming of Modernity’s Other.” In Cannibal Modernities: Postcoloniality and the Avant-garde in Caribbean and Brazilian Literature. University of Virginia Press, 2005. pp. 131-163.

Mongey, Vanessa. “A Tale of Two Brothers: Haiti’s Other Revolutions.” The Americas 69, no. 1 (2012): 37-60.

Nemours, Alfred. Historie militaire de la guerre d’indépendance de Saint Domingue. 2nd ed. Port-au-Prince: Éditions Fardins, 2004.

Nesbitt, Nick. Universal Emancipation: The Haitian Revolution and the Radical Enlightenment. University of Virginia Press, 2008.

Pierrot, Grégory. “‘Our Hero’: Toussaint Louverture in British RepresentationsCriticism, vol. 50 no. 4 (2008), 581-607.

Popkin, Jeremy D. A Concise History of the Haitian Revolution. John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

—. Facing Racial Revolution: Eyewitness Accounts of the Haitian Insurrection. University of Chicago Press, 2007.

—. You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery. Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Sepinwall, Alyssa Goldstein, ed. Haitian History: New Perspectives. Routledge, 2013.

Smartt Bell, Madison. Toussaint Louverture: A Biography. Pantheon Books, 2007.

Spieler, Miranda. “The Legal Structure of Colonial Rule during the French Revolution.” William and Mary Quarterly Vol. LXVI, No. 2 (2009), p. 365-408.

Stahl, Aletha. “Enfans de l’Amerique? Configuring Creole Citizenship in the Press, 1793.” Journal of Haitian Studies. Vol. 15, No. 1 & 2 (2010): 168-179.

Taber, Rob. “Navigating Haiti’s History: Saint-Domingue and the Haitian Revolution.” History Compass, 13 (2015): 235–250.

Thornton, John K. “African Soldiers in the Haitian Revolution.” The Journal of Caribbean History, Vol. 25, No. 1 & 2 (1991): 58-80.

—-. “‘I Am the Subject of the King of Kongo’: African Political Ideology and the Haitian Revolution.” Journal of World History Vol. 4, No. 2 (1993): 181-214.

Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History. Beacon Press, 2015.

Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. Ti Difé Boulé Sou Istoua Ayiti. 1977. Edisyon KIK, 2012.

Weaver, Karol K. Weaver. Medical Revolutionaries: The Enslaved Healers of Eighteenth-Century Saint Domingue. University of Illinois Press, 2006.

White, Ashli. Encountering Revolution: Haiti and the Making of the Early Republic. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.

*The above list was compiled by the editors of Age of Revolutions with further assistance from Kristen Block, Erica Johnson, Erin Zavitz, Rob Taber, and John Garrigus’s Zotero page, which has a formidable bibliography for anyone interested in Caribbean history.*

**Think we should ad a specific text to the above list? Send us a message in the comment section below.**

Jamaica on Fire: Haiti and the Problem of Inspiration – Age of Revolutions

By Tom Zoellner

Any study of the march toward freedom in the Caribbean must give a central role to the horror and splendor of the Haitian Revolution – the 1791 revolt of enslaved people in the outpost of Saint-Domingue that turned into a full-blown war against the French slave-owning class.

When I first set out to write a day-by-day account of the consequential 1831-32 revolt in Jamaica that proved the tipping point for abolition in the British Caribbean, I expected to find multiple references to Haiti in the jail cell depositions of the captured rebels. How could it have not been inspiring to them?[1] Here was the motivated leader Toussaint Louverture who responded quickly to the news of a local rebellion, gathered a team of talented co-conspirators to make it even bigger, formed an alliance with the Spanish, repurposed the discourse of the French revolutionaries, used modern European military tactics to foil his oppressors, dictated the terms of retreat to a humiliated British invasion force, and then set his freed colony on a course to be the world’s first republic governed exclusively by freed slaves? He was famous enough throughout the Caribbean to have been an inspiration to Jose Antonio Aponte, the enslaved Cuban rebel leader who had even kept a drawing of Louverture in his house[2]. But to my surprise, in the Jamaican revolt I found barely any mention of the successful revolution next door.

It was not as if Jamaica’s enslaved people were not aware of what had happened in Haiti. As it occurred elsewhere in the Atlantic world, Jamaican slaves learned details of the Haitian Revolution before their enslavers. In The Common Wind Julius Scott convincingly argued how a sophisticated network of intelligence-sharing had already emerged in the Caribbean by the early eighteenth century.[3] Through a complicated brew of overheard dinner table conversations, newspaper clippings, rumors, behaviors observed among the whites, human trafficking throughout the Caribbean, and direct eyewitness accounts, enslaved peoples learned about each other’s situations in great detail. The speed of these underground dispatches was often surprising to the white masters. One British commander warned his subordinates that enslaved people were “immediately informed of every kind of news that arrives” and would know “perfectly well every transaction at Cape Francois.”[4]

Jamaica’s sugar barons tried to cut off knowledge of Haiti, censoring dispatches about it in Kingston newspapers and banning the use of enslaved deckhands on ships bound for Haitian ports, lest they get inspired by the full black independence they might witness. The paranoia was such that an enslaved regiment of fighters accompanying Colonel Thomas Maitland’s ill-fated attempt to help the French regain control in 1792 were freed on the spot and denied passage back to Jamaica. Even the white refugees from Haiti were held at arm’s length; they seemed cursed. Serving as an agricultural prison camp, Jamaican perilous demographics – a ratio of one white colonist for every twenty enslaved people, the quintessential definition of a slave society – proved to be a social tinderbox. Pro-liberty ideology, charismatic leadership, and a united agenda among enslaved peoples had the potential for transforming discontent into revolt.

Servile revolts were not uncommon in the British Caribbean; one erupted every five years or so, and were usually quashed within days by the militia – a paramilitary outfit that had to be joined by every man between the ages of 16 and 60.[5] But three decades after Haitians declared their independence as a sovereign nation, the largest uprising ever seen ripped through the northwestern section of the island without anyone connected with it taking an example from those that had successfully and famously cut off their own shackles.

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Black Spartacus: The Epic Life of Toussaint Louverture: Sudhir Hazareesingh



Shortlisted for the Baillie Gifford Prize
Named a best book of the year by the Times Literary Supplement | New Statesman

Black Spartacus is a tour de force: by far the most complete, authoritative and persuasive biography of Toussaint that we are likely to have for a long time . . . An extraordinarily gripping read.” ―David A. Bell, The Guardian

A new interpretation of the life of the Haitian revolutionary Toussaint Louverture

Among the defining figures of the Age of Revolution, Toussaint Louverture is the most enigmatic. Though the Haitian revolutionary’s image has multiplied across the globe―appearing on banknotes and in bronze, on T-shirts and in film―the only definitive portrait executed in his lifetime has been lost. Well versed in the work of everyone from Machiavelli to Rousseau, he was nonetheless dismissed by Thomas Jefferson as a “cannibal.” A Caribbean acolyte of the European Enlightenment, Toussaint nurtured a class of black Catholic clergymen who became one of the pillars of his rule, while his supporters also believed he communicated with vodou spirits. And for a leader who once summed up his modus operandi with the phrase “Say little but do as much as possible,” he was a prolific and indefatigable correspondent, famous for exhausting the five secretaries he maintained, simultaneously, at the height of his power in the 1790s.

Employing groundbreaking archival research and a keen interpretive lens, Sudhir Hazareesingh restores Toussaint to his full complexity in Black Spartacus. At a time when his subject has, variously, been reduced to little more than a one-dimensional icon of liberation or criticized for his personal failings―his white mistresses, his early ownership of slaves, his authoritarianism ―Hazareesingh proposes a new conception of Toussaint’s understanding of himself and his role in the Atlantic world of the late eighteenth century. Black Spartacus is a work of both biography and intellectual history, rich with insights into Toussaint’s fundamental hybridity―his ability to unite European, African, and Caribbean traditions in the service of his revolutionary aims. Hazareesingh offers a new and resonant interpretation of Toussaint’s racial politics, showing how he used Enlightenment ideas to argue for the equal dignity of all human beings while simultaneously insisting on his own world-historical importance and the universal pertinence of blackness―a message which chimed particularly powerfully among African Americans.

Ultimately, Black Spartacus offers a vigorous argument in favor of “getting back to Toussaint”―a call to take Haiti’s founding father seriously on his own terms, and to honor his role in shaping the postcolonial world to come.

Black Spartacus is a tour de force: by far the most complete, authoritative and persuasive biography of Toussaint that we are likely to have for a long time . . . An extraordinarily gripping read.” ―David A. Bell, The Guardian

“[Hazareesingh’s] way into the story is through Toussaint’s military adventures and, more importantly, through his catlike politics . . . Lustrous pearls . . . , scattered throughout Black Spartacus, turn this detailed, blow-by-blow account of Toussaint’s military exploits into a dazzling, complicated narrative. They add romance and family intrigue to a plot that is also dotted with Toussaint’s own writing, which will be appreciated by those who have never heard his worldly, arrogant and eloquent voice.” ―Amy Wilentz, Spectator

“Remarkable . . . [Sudhir Hazareesingh] deftly tells the byzantine and fragmented history to paint perhaps the sharpest portrait yet of Louverture . . . The book also provides new and important insights into seminal events such as the initial insurrection of 1791 . . . Black Spartacus is a triumph. It takes a nearly impossibly complex history and weaves it into a compelling and accurate narrative that reads like fiction.” ―Ben Horowitz, Financial Times

“Sudhir Hazareesingh’s engrossing [Black Spartacus] tells the story of how the enigmatic, deeply religious boy from Bréda came to be one of the most celebrated, feared and consequential political leaders of his generation . . . Hazareesingh brings to the task a voracious appetite for original sources and a discerning ear for those which have the ring of truth. He also has a gift for tracing those threads that reveal a previously unrecognized pattern in the fabric of a life.” ―Nathan Perl-Rosenthal, The Wall Street Journal

“Hazareesingh presents a deeply researched, energetic, and comprehensively reenvisioned study of the extraordinary life and still-growing influence of Haiti’s liberator and founding father . . . From daring military maneuvers to innovations in governing, dignity in his tragic fall, and galvanizing impact as ‘the first Black superhero of the modern age,’ here, vividly and invaluably, is Toussaint Louverture in full.” ―Donna Seaman, Booklist (starred review)

“With Black Spartacus, Sudhir Hazareesingh has produced the fourth – and best – biography of Toussaint Louverture since the bicentenary of Haitian independence … The book deftly tackles the early stages of the slave uprising and gives one of the most convincing accounts yet of Toussaint’s likely role in its opening moves. The use of non-traditional archives is particularly refreshing and allows Hazareesingh to frequently foreground the importance of Vodou to the revolutionaries.” ―Paul Clammer, History Today

“Tracing the growth of Louverture from revolutionary leader to mythic figure, this engrossing read reveals and recovers the historic place both he and the country of Haiti deserve to occupy in the story of the Atlantic world’s creation and re-creation.” ―Thomas J. Davis, Library Journal (starred review)

“An ideas-rich biography shows why Toussaint Louverture matters more than ever . . . an outstanding biography that breaks fresh ground and scrapes the crust of folklore, and cliché, from the Toussaint story . . . Hazareesingh smartly balances a twisty narrative with wider analysis of the forces and ideas at work. His scrupulous and absorbing biography not only portrays Toussaint the swashbuckling hero. It celebrates the philosopher . . . After the summer of 2020, there could hardly be a more urgent and valuable book.” ―Boyd Tonkin, The Arts Desk

“If anyone lived an epic life, it is [Louverture], and Hazareesingh captures it perfectly in his new book . . . This book is for absolutely anyone that loves history . . . Louverture’s story will move you and make you think differently at the same time.” ―Jason Park, Medium

“A thorough reconsideration of the legendary Haitian leader, whose deployment of republican ideals of racial equality were radical and transformative―and still resonate today . . . [Black
] closely examines the many contradictory accounts of Toussaint’s dealings before and after [the start
of the Haitian Revolution] . . . A knowledgeable biography that carefully considers the nuances of Toussaint’s character and the legends that surround him.” Kirkus Reviews

About the Author

Sudhir Hazareesingh was born in Mauritius. He is a Fellow of the British Academy and has been a Fellow and Tutor in Politics at Balliol College, Oxford, since 1990. He has written extensively about French intellectual and cultural history, and among his books are The Legend of Napoleon, In the Shadow of the General and How the French Think. He won the Prix du Mémorial d’Ajaccio and the Prix de la Fondation Napoléon for the first of these, a Prix d’Histoire du Sénat for the second, and the Grand Prix du Livre d’Idées for the third.

  • Hardcover : 464 pages
  • ISBN-10 : 0374112665
  • ISBN-13 : 978-0374112660
  • Dimensions : 6.32 x 1.51 x 9.52 inches
  • Publisher : Farrar, Straus and Giroux (September 1, 2020)

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