The first two hundred years of the African slave trade were dominated by the Portuguese, the Spanish and the Dutch. While the Portuguese initiated the trade around the Cape of Good Hope to Asia, the Dutch came to dominate the spice trade to the East and the slave trade in West Africa and the Americas over the course of the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries. At first the trade in African slaves was conducted through Iberian ports, but after 1530 that began to change, and the “triangular” trade from African directly to the western hemisphere began to become established.
In Africa the Portuguese had reached southwards along to African coast with official encouragement from Prince Henry “the navigator.” They reached the Gold Coast by 1471 and built the Castle São Jorge da Mina (St. George of the Mine) on the shore by 1482. Known today as Elmina Castle this structure represents the first trading post built on the Gulf of Guinea, and it still stands today as the oldest European building in existence south of the Sahara. In subsequent decades and centuries it represented a major trading entrepôt on the Gold Coast. In 1637 the Dutch seized it from the Portuguese and added to their possessions all the other Portuguese posts on the Gold Coast by 1642.
Further research on the Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch trading practices during the first two hundred years of the Atlantic trade system is now needed and would add significantly to an emerging international understanding of the slave trade. A detailed study of digitized maps from the Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch sources could be combined with an in-depth study of the historical ethno-botany of this early trading period to learn about the provisioning of ships for the Middle Passage. These studies could be combined with a systematic research program for the selective forensic archaeology of the slave castles themselves to yield rich new understandings of this important early phase of the Atlantic slave trade.
- Old Maps, Picks and Shovels: Steps Toward An Archaeology of the Atlantic Slave Trade
- Historical Cartography and the Archaeology of the Atlantic Trade
- Castles and Dungeons on the Coasts and Islands: Retracing Some Steps in the Atlantic Trade
- Old Maps & New Narratives: Digitizing Historical Maps to Analyze New Dimensions of the Atlantic Trade
- Mapping the Slave Trade: 1556-1823 – A Digital Humanities Project
- Colloquium with Mary Hicks: ‘Africa/Brazil: Black Mariners and the World of South Atlantic Slavery’
- The History of the Dutch Slave Trade 1600-1863
- Agriculture, Topsoil and the Ecology of Colonialism
- Soils, Agriculture, Carbon Sequestration and Human Survival
- Biofuels, Land Grabs, and the Right to Food: The Legacy of Colonialism and the Evolution of the Global Food System
- The Globalization of Food Production: The Atlantic Plantation System and the Origins of Africa’s Food Crisis
- Dark Chocolate: The Bitter Truth Behind the Sweets We All Enjoy
- The Caribbean: Island Cultures from Slavery to Global Climate Change
- Harvard President Calls On Institution To Recognize Ties To Slavery
- Colonial Williamsburg, Slavery and Rememberance – Iberian Slave Trade
- Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade: Johannes Postma
- Going Dutch – The Netherlands’ slave trade
- When The Dutch Ruled The World: Rise and Fall of the Dutch East India Company
- Dutch Navies of the 80 Years’ War 1568-1648: Bouko de Groot, Peter Bull