Daily Archives: July 13, 2018

The Rise of Mongol Empire


edhaje
Published on Apr 19, 2018
The rise of Mongol Empire
1187 – Temujin were at war with Jamukha, his blood brother over the supremacy of Mongolian tribes.
1204 – Temujian pursued & defeated Jamukha.He then executed him.
1206 – Temujin was proclaimed Genghis Khan, the Great Khan.
1207 – Mongol conquest of Kyrgyz, Oirat, and Buryat.
1210 – Western Xia was conquered by the Mongols. Emperor Xiangzong of Tangut Empire (northwest China) submits to the Mongol Empire.
Mongol attack on Great Wall of China, Poor condition and threat made many Manchu Jin soldiers guarding the wall defected.
1215 – Mongolian army ransacked Zhongdu (Beijing) capital of Manchu Jin Empire (Northeast China).
Mongolian forces learns siege warfare from captured chinese engineers.
The Jin empire’s court retreated to southern capital,Kaifeng.
1216 – Mongolian army seize Kashgar from Kara khitai (Chatay) Empire.
1218 – Mongol forces battling Turkic Khwarezmian Empire in Persia over the assassination of Mongol emissaries.
1219 – Mongolian forces ransacked Samarkand, Bukhara, Otrar, Massacring mercilessly its inhabitant.
Kingdom of Goryeo (Korea) submitted to the Mongols.
1221 – Khwarezmian capital city, Ürgenç fell to the mongols and destroyed.
Jalal Ad-Din assume the title Shah of Kharezmi after his fater died and defeating mongolian contingent in Hindu Kush Mountain (Battle of Parwan)
1222 – Mongols forces under Subutai defeated forces of Kingdom of Georgia (Battle of Caucasus Mountain). Georgians then submitted to the Mongols.
1223 – Mongol forces under Subutai and Jebe defeated coalition of Rus principality in Battle of the Kalka River.
1227 – Qara Kithai (Cathay) conquered by the Mongols. Emperor Mozhu of Qara Kithai surrenders.
1229 – Genghis Khan died, replaced by his son Ögedei Khan
1232 – Azerbaijan conquered by Mongols.
1233 – Mongolian army caputred Kaifeng, Manchu Jin Empire fall to the Mongols.
1236 – Mongol forces conquered Volga Bulgars.
1237 – Mongolian forces under Subutai and Batu conquer Kievan Rus’ principality.
1238 – Burundai defeted Vladimir-Suzdal principality (Battle of the Sit River).
1240 – Mongol forces invade Tibetan Empire.
1241 – Mongol forces under Subutai and Boroldai defeat combined army of Templar, Hungary and Croatia.
Ögedei Khan dies.
1242 – Mongol forces under Batu Khan invade Bulgaria & Serbia, ransacking frontiers of Byzantine Empire.
1243 – Seljuk Turks fought mongol incursion, but lost in the Battle (Battle of Köse Dag). Seljuk became mongol vassals.
1246 – Güyük Khan elected as the Head of Mongol Empire.
1251 – Möngke Khan elected as the Head of Mongol Empire.
1256 – Alamut, headquartes of Asasiyun (Assassins) conquered by the mongols.
1258 – Hulagu Khan besieging Baghdad. Its inhabitant and Caliph Al-Musta’sim were killed by the Mongols. The great library of baghdad were destroyed.
Hulagu created ilkhanate domain in Persia.
1259 – Mongol forces under boroldai invades poland. and sacking Sandomierz.
Möngke Khan died during campaign against Han Song Empire.
1260 – Mamluks Sultanate repel mongol invasion under Kitbuga towards Palestine (Battle of Ayn Jalut).
Kublai Khan in China was elected as head of Mongol Empire, but western mongol disagree with it. Unified mongol empire was breaking apart.
Ariq Böke in Mongolia proclaims himself great khan of the Mongol Empire.
Sandomierz in Poland was sacked by Mongols.
1263 – Berke of Golden Horde (Russia) defeated Hulagu of Ilkhanate (Persia) in Terek River.
1264 – Kublai Khan defeats Ariq Böke. Solidify his control of Eastern Mongol Empire.
1265 – Mongol Golden Horde invaded Thrace, Byzantine army under Michael VIII Palaiologos was defeated. Byzantine sued for peace with Mongol Goldedn Horde.
1266 – Kublai Khan build his capital Khanbaliks/Daidu (Beijing)
1269 – Rebellion in Goryeo (Korea) supressed by the Mongols.
1271 – Kublai Khan declared Mongol in China as Yuan Empire.
1273 – Xiangyang, the strongest fortress of the Song dynasty (Southern China), had fallen to Mongol Yuan Empire.Song Dynasty collapsed.
1275 – Mongol Yuan Empire invade Japan. but their fleet was annihilated by Typhoon.
1282 – Mongol Yuan Empire invade Kingddom of Champa (Southern Vietnam), but were bogged down in guerilla warfare.
1283 – Mongol Yuan Empire conquered Pagan Kingdom (Myanmar) and Pagan became Mongol vassal.
1285 – Mongol Golden Horde invade Hungary, succeessfuly ransacking Transylvania but defeated in Carphatian Mountains.
1288 – Mongol Yuan Empire invade 3rd time Kingdom of Đại Việt (Northern Vietnam), capturing the capital but sucessfuly repelled by Vietnamese forces (Battle of Bạch Đằng). Later kingdom of Annam accept Mongol Yuan Suzeranity.
1292 – Mongol Chagatai Khanate of Central Asia invade India, but was beaten by Delhi Sultanate.
1293 – Mongol Yuan Empire invade Island of Java, sacked City of Kadiri but were beaten by Majapahit forces. Mongol Yuan return to China.

Zheng He Voyage (Ming Treasure Fleet)


edhaje
Published on May 28, 2018
Zheng He Voyage (Ming Treasure Fleet)

1402 CE – Prince Zhu Di rebelled against Jianwen emperor and win the throne, along with the sack of Nanjing Palace and execution of the royal court. Later Prince Zhu Di became Yong Le Emperor.
1403 CE – As civil war and rebellion succeeded, Yongle Emperor began the construction of Treasure Fleet to project Ming Empire greatness.
in contrast of Yuan Empire a century earlier who sent military fleet across the sea to conquer new lands, Ming Empire sent large fleet not to invade but rather to increase prestige, diplomatic and commercial ties to the distant lands.
1405 CE – Zheng He (originally Ma He) a talented muslim eunuch in Ming Court who helped prince Zhu Di to the throne, was entrusted the position of Naval Admiral for the voyage to western ocean.
as Zheng He was Muslim and also spoke fluently of Arabic and Parsi, brave, talented and loyal to the emperor was suitable to the task.
Muslim from north Africa and middle east was commonly trading back and forth to China, earlier during Yuan Empire, Moroccan traveller visited Yuan Court in Khanbaliq (Beijing).
in July 1405, the fleet sailed from Nanjing.
Ming fleet sailed along the coast visiting various kingdom like Champa (southern Vietnam), Majapahit (Java), Malacca, Samudera Pasai (Sumatra),Sri Lanka to Calicut (Southern India). Then returned through western coast of India.
In his return, the fleet battling Chinese Guangdong Pirates commanded by Chen Zu Yi from his base at Palembang (Sumatra), soon the pirates was annihilated. Zheng He then put Muslim trader Shi Jin Qing as Ming ambassador for Palembang.
1407 CE – The fleet returned in Nanjing from their maiden voyage along with ambassador from various Kingdom & Sultanates.
1409 CE – Zheng He lead third expedition of the Treasure fleet. He sailed from Nanjing through India and Hormuz strait, then through coastal Arabia (Oman & Yemen).
1411 CE – Ming fleet returned home. during their return, Ming fleet engaged in a military confrontation with Kingdom of Ceylon led by King Alakeshvara who conduct piracy in the Indian ocean. The Sinhalese King was captured and previous dynasty was restored to the Ceylon throne.
1412 CE – Ming fleet traveled for the fouth time, and Ma Huan, a Muslim imperial scribe joining the expedition along with Hasan, as Arabic interpreter.
1415 CE – The fleet returned to Nanjing from its fourth voyage.
1417 CE – During Ming’s fifth voyage, the fleet visited western coast of Africa from Mogadishu (Somalia), Barawa (somalia) and Malindi (Kenya).
1419 CE – Ming fleet returned from African voyage bringing exotic African animal to the Ming court.
1424 CE – Yong Le Emperor died, succeeded by his son Hong Xi Emperor. As threat from the Mongol remnant was imminent, the Emperor postponed another voyages.
Zheng he became Mayor of Nanjing and keep Ming’s fleet as part of naval defense. He also overseer the construction of porcelain tower in Nanjing.
1425 CE – Hong Xi emperor died only reigning for a year, Suceeded by Xuan De emperor.
1430 CE – Ming empire launch their seventh voyage commanded by Admiral Zheng He
1432 CE – Ming fleet followed previous route and also made visit to Maldives Sultanate, and Holy City of Mecca in Arabia.
Ma Huan, the Muslim imperial scribe visited Mecca and wrote a chapter about it in his book, Yingya Shenglan.
1433 CE – Admiral Zheng He died during his return journey in Malabar coast near Calicut, his body buried in the sea.
His tomb was erected in Nanjing, but contains no body, only his remains and possession buried there.
1435 CE – After his death Confucianist civil bureaucrat were following isolationist policy and focused on domestic affairs.
1480 CE – Confucianist civil bureaucrat who dominate imperial court rather than imperial eunuch, destroyed most of account regarding Zheng He voyage in the imperial record. The voyage was deemed an embarrassment and waste of state resources.
An edict banning any further voyages by the navy was launched by Civil bureaucrats. Thus political, economic and diplomatic relations carefully nourished during Zheng He seven voyage soon faded away.
1522 CE – As Ming Empire intensifies ban on seafaring (haijin) and their army focused on the northern front against steppe nomads. Wokou pirates roam the sea and plundering coastal china.
Wokous mostly composed of Japanese (as japan was entering state of turmoil) and dissatisfied Chinese (because private seafaring is banned and regarded as crime to the Ming).
1525 CE – Ming imperial edicts had ordered that large ships be destroyed and also outlawed the building of seaworthy junks with more than two masts.Diminishing Ming capabilities to roam the sea.

Music for Samudera Pasai :
Wahyu Radat – Bungong Jeumpa

Zheng He’s voyages – Departure ceremony held by emperor Yongle of Ming (1405 AD.)


Bronze Goblet
Published on Dec 27, 2015

Chinese historical drama series: Zheng He’s Seven Voyages (2009) EP19 Chinese history video playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list…

Ships – Zheng He


Albianiegea
Published on Dec 5, 2011

Ships – Zheng He

Zheng He’s Art of Collaboration: Understanding the Legendary Chinese Admiral from a Management Perspective | by Hoon Sin Hum

“Know your enemies, know yourself”, advised Sun Zi in his famous Art of War (AoW). In contrast, the legendary Admiral Zheng He would have said, “Know your collaborators, know yourself”, and this would be the essence of his Art of Collaboration (AoC). This book offers a fresh new approach to doing business and providing leadership in the twenty-first century, where Zheng He’s peaceful and win-win collaborative paradigm present in his AoC provides an alternative to the aggressive and antagonistic mindset inherent in Sun Zi’s AoW.

The author has culled from the existing literature on the historical, cultural, diplomatic, and maritime-oriented Zheng He, connected the dots of his discovery of a managerial Zheng He, and wrote this book to present both the big message of Zheng He’s Art of Collaboration as well as an understanding of Zheng He’s specific work as a leader and manager.

See:

 

Zheng He’s Art of Collaboration

Pt 1. Explorer and manager
NUS Business School
Published on Mar 10, 2014

Fifteenth century Chinese admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho) led the largest fleet the world has ever seen on seven epic voyages of discovery and trade from China as far as the east coast of Africa. This three-part series examines the leadership skills he needed and the many lessons still relevant for today’s business leaders.

Zheng He’s Art of Collaboration: Pt 2. Admiral and leader

NUS Business School
Published on Mar 10, 2014

Zheng He’s Art of Collaboration: Pt 3. Supply chain pioneer

NUS Business School
Published on Mar 10, 2014

See:

 

 

 

Meet ZHENG HE – The Greatest CHINESE MUSLIM Explorer


KJ Vids
Published on Jun 9, 2018

When people think of great explorers, they think of the usual names: Marco Polo, Ibn Battuta, Evliya Çelebi, Christopher Columbus, etc.

But not many know of Zheng He. The Muslim who became China’s greatest admiral, explorer, and diplomat. In China, he is well known, although not always recognized or glorified.

Zheng was born in 1371 in the southern China region of Yunnan to a Muslim Chinese ethnic family and named Ma He.

In China, the family name is said first, followed by the given name. “Ma” is known in China as short for “Muhammad”, indicating Zheng Muslim heritage.

At a young age, his town was raided by the Ming Dynasty’s army. He was captured and transported to the capital, Nanjing, where he served in the imperial household.

Despite the oppressive and difficult circumstances he was in, Zheng actually befriended one of the princes, Zhu Di, and rose to the highest positions in government. He was given the honorific title “Zheng” and was known as Zheng He.

In 1405, when emperor Zhu Di decided to send out a giant fleet of ships to explore and trade with the rest of the world, he chose Zheng to lead the expedition.

This expedition was massive. In all, almost 30,000 sailors were in each voyage, with Zheng He commanding all of them.

Between 1405 and 1433, Zheng He led 7 expeditions that sailed to present day Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, Iran, Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Kenya, and many other countries.

It is probable that during one of his journeys, Zheng He was even able to go to Makkah to complete the Hajj.

Zheng was not the only Muslim on these expeditions. Many of his advisors and were also Chinese Muslims, such as Ma Huan, a translator who spoke Arabic and was able to converse with the Muslim peoples they encountered on their journeys.

He wrote an account of his journeys, titled the , which is an important source today for understanding 15th century societies around the Indian Ocean.

The ships Zheng commanded were up to 400 feet long, many times the size of Columbus’s ships that sailed across the Atlantic.

Zheng would sail back to China with exotic goods such as ivory, camels, gold, and even a giraffe from Africa. The expeditions sent one message to the world: China is an economic and political superpower.

Economics and politics were not the only effects of this great fleet that was commanded by Zheng. He and his Muslim advisors regularly promoted Islam wherever they travelled.

In the Indonesian islands of Java, Sumatra, Borneo and others, Zheng found small communities of Muslims already there.

Islam had started to spread in Southeast Asia a few hundred years before through trade from Arabia and India. Zheng actively supported the continued growth of Islam in these areas.

Zheng established Chinese Muslim communities in Palembang, and along Java, the Malay Peninsula, and the Philippines.

These communities preached Islam to the local people and were very important to the spread of Islam in the area.

The fleet built masjids and provided other social services the local Muslim community would need.

Even after the death of Zheng in 1433, other Chinese Muslims continued his work in Southeast Asia, spreading Islam.

Chinese Muslim traders in Southeast Asia were encouraged to intermarry and assimilate with the local people on the islands and Malay Peninsula.

This brought more people to Islam in Southeast Asia, as well as strengthened and diversified the growing Muslim community.

As an admiral, diplomat, soldier, and trader, Zheng He is a giant of Chinese and Muslim history. He is seen as one of the greatest figured in the spread of Islam in Southeast Asia.

Unfortunately, after his death, the Chinese government changed its philosophy to a more Confucian one which did not support such expeditions like Zheng He’s.

As a result, his accomplishments and contributions were mostly forgotten or overlooked for hundreds of years in China.

His legacy in Southeast Asia, however is quite different. Numerous Mosques in the region are named after him to commemorate his contributions.

Islam spread in Southeast Asia through many forms, including trade, travelling preachers, and immigration.

Admiral Zheng He was also a major part of its spread in that region.

Today, Indonesia has the largest Muslim population of any nation in the world, and much of that could be attributed to the activities of Zheng He in the region.