Published on Apr 19, 2018
The rise of Mongol Empire
1187 – Temujin were at war with Jamukha, his blood brother over the supremacy of Mongolian tribes.
1204 – Temujian pursued & defeated Jamukha.He then executed him.
1206 – Temujin was proclaimed Genghis Khan, the Great Khan.
1207 – Mongol conquest of Kyrgyz, Oirat, and Buryat.
1210 – Western Xia was conquered by the Mongols. Emperor Xiangzong of Tangut Empire (northwest China) submits to the Mongol Empire.
Mongol attack on Great Wall of China, Poor condition and threat made many Manchu Jin soldiers guarding the wall defected.
1215 – Mongolian army ransacked Zhongdu (Beijing) capital of Manchu Jin Empire (Northeast China).
Mongolian forces learns siege warfare from captured chinese engineers.
The Jin empire’s court retreated to southern capital,Kaifeng.
1216 – Mongolian army seize Kashgar from Kara khitai (Chatay) Empire.
1218 – Mongol forces battling Turkic Khwarezmian Empire in Persia over the assassination of Mongol emissaries.
1219 – Mongolian forces ransacked Samarkand, Bukhara, Otrar, Massacring mercilessly its inhabitant.
Kingdom of Goryeo (Korea) submitted to the Mongols.
1221 – Khwarezmian capital city, Ürgenç fell to the mongols and destroyed.
Jalal Ad-Din assume the title Shah of Kharezmi after his fater died and defeating mongolian contingent in Hindu Kush Mountain (Battle of Parwan)
1222 – Mongols forces under Subutai defeated forces of Kingdom of Georgia (Battle of Caucasus Mountain). Georgians then submitted to the Mongols.
1223 – Mongol forces under Subutai and Jebe defeated coalition of Rus principality in Battle of the Kalka River.
1227 – Qara Kithai (Cathay) conquered by the Mongols. Emperor Mozhu of Qara Kithai surrenders.
1229 – Genghis Khan died, replaced by his son Ögedei Khan
1232 – Azerbaijan conquered by Mongols.
1233 – Mongolian army caputred Kaifeng, Manchu Jin Empire fall to the Mongols.
1236 – Mongol forces conquered Volga Bulgars.
1237 – Mongolian forces under Subutai and Batu conquer Kievan Rus’ principality.
1238 – Burundai defeted Vladimir-Suzdal principality (Battle of the Sit River).
1240 – Mongol forces invade Tibetan Empire.
1241 – Mongol forces under Subutai and Boroldai defeat combined army of Templar, Hungary and Croatia.
Ögedei Khan dies.
1242 – Mongol forces under Batu Khan invade Bulgaria & Serbia, ransacking frontiers of Byzantine Empire.
1243 – Seljuk Turks fought mongol incursion, but lost in the Battle (Battle of Köse Dag). Seljuk became mongol vassals.
1246 – Güyük Khan elected as the Head of Mongol Empire.
1251 – Möngke Khan elected as the Head of Mongol Empire.
1256 – Alamut, headquartes of Asasiyun (Assassins) conquered by the mongols.
1258 – Hulagu Khan besieging Baghdad. Its inhabitant and Caliph Al-Musta’sim were killed by the Mongols. The great library of baghdad were destroyed.
Hulagu created ilkhanate domain in Persia.
1259 – Mongol forces under boroldai invades poland. and sacking Sandomierz.
Möngke Khan died during campaign against Han Song Empire.
1260 – Mamluks Sultanate repel mongol invasion under Kitbuga towards Palestine (Battle of Ayn Jalut).
Kublai Khan in China was elected as head of Mongol Empire, but western mongol disagree with it. Unified mongol empire was breaking apart.
Ariq Böke in Mongolia proclaims himself great khan of the Mongol Empire.
Sandomierz in Poland was sacked by Mongols.
1263 – Berke of Golden Horde (Russia) defeated Hulagu of Ilkhanate (Persia) in Terek River.
1264 – Kublai Khan defeats Ariq Böke. Solidify his control of Eastern Mongol Empire.
1265 – Mongol Golden Horde invaded Thrace, Byzantine army under Michael VIII Palaiologos was defeated. Byzantine sued for peace with Mongol Goldedn Horde.
1266 – Kublai Khan build his capital Khanbaliks/Daidu (Beijing)
1269 – Rebellion in Goryeo (Korea) supressed by the Mongols.
1271 – Kublai Khan declared Mongol in China as Yuan Empire.
1273 – Xiangyang, the strongest fortress of the Song dynasty (Southern China), had fallen to Mongol Yuan Empire.Song Dynasty collapsed.
1275 – Mongol Yuan Empire invade Japan. but their fleet was annihilated by Typhoon.
1282 – Mongol Yuan Empire invade Kingddom of Champa (Southern Vietnam), but were bogged down in guerilla warfare.
1283 – Mongol Yuan Empire conquered Pagan Kingdom (Myanmar) and Pagan became Mongol vassal.
1285 – Mongol Golden Horde invade Hungary, succeessfuly ransacking Transylvania but defeated in Carphatian Mountains.
1288 – Mongol Yuan Empire invade 3rd time Kingdom of Đại Việt (Northern Vietnam), capturing the capital but sucessfuly repelled by Vietnamese forces (Battle of Bạch Đằng). Later kingdom of Annam accept Mongol Yuan Suzeranity.
1292 – Mongol Chagatai Khanate of Central Asia invade India, but was beaten by Delhi Sultanate.
1293 – Mongol Yuan Empire invade Island of Java, sacked City of Kadiri but were beaten by Majapahit forces. Mongol Yuan return to China.
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